Main Article Content

Mohamed Shabanpour

Abstract

The term underdog entrepreneur (UE) is increasingly used among scholars to discuss successful disabled, immigrant, and necessity entrepreneurs who encounter significant challenges in their early lives. However, their characteristics and business obstacles in emerging economies remain unclear. This research offers insights by answering two questions: (1) how do physical, socio-cultural, and economic challenges motivate underdog individuals to become entrepreneurs? And (2) what are UEs’ unique challenges following establishing their ventures in Iran? First, this research develops a theoretical model by providing insights from 76 secondary data and 18 in-depth interviews using topic modeling. Subsequently, a survey method is conducted to collect data from underdog entrepreneurs in Iran. Structural Equation Modeling is performed to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. The findings reveal that negative situations create experiences, which lead to innovativeness, risk-tolerance, skilled communications, and persistence, which mediate the entrepreneurship journey. Moreover, UEs confront governmental, managerial, and environmental challenges to maintain their businesses in Iran's emerging economy. In the end, practical suggestions were presented to governors, entrepreneurs, and scholars regarding how they can manage these challenges, paving the way for UEs' success to positively impact economic growth.

Article Details

Keywords

Text Mining, Topic Modeling, Structural Equation Modeling, Underdog Entrepreneur, Industrial Entrepreneur, Necessity

Refrences
[1] R.P. Bagozzi, Y. Yi. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science. 16 (1988) 74-94.
[2] C. Korunka, H. Frank, M. Lueger, J. Mugler. The entrepreneurial personality in the context of resources, environment, and the startup process—A configurational approach. Entrepreneurship theory and practice. 28 (2003) 23-42.
[3] D. Vaziri, D. Schreiber, R. Wieching, V. Wulf. Disabled entrepreneurship and self-employment: The role of technology and policy building. (2014).
[4] D. Pattanayak, M. Koilakuntla, P. Punyatoya. Investigating the influence of TQM, service quality and market orientation on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the Indian banking sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. (2017).
[5] P. Belleflamme, T. Lambert, A. Schwienbacher. Individual crowdfunding practices. Venture Capital. 15 (2013) 313-33.
[6] S.-J. Chang, A. Van Witteloostuijn, L. Eden. From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Springer2010.
[7] J. Mirowsky, C.E. Ross. Economic hardship across the life course. American Sociological Review. (1999) 548-69.
[8] A. Piepenbrink, A.S. Gaur. Topic models as a novel approach to identify themes in content analysis. Academy of Management Proceedings. Academy of Management Briarcliff Manor, NY 105102017. p. 11335.
[9] J.H. Block, K. Kohn, D. Miller, K. Ullrich. Necessity entrepreneurship and competitive strategy. Small Business Economics. 44 (2015) 37-54.
[10] M. Shabanpour. Identifying the Characteristics and Challenges of Underdog Entrepreneurs in Iran: A Narrative-Based Study. Master's thesis supervised by M. J. Naeiji2020.
[11] H. Bergmann, R. Sternberg. The changing face of entrepreneurship in Germany. Small Business Economics. 28 (2007) 205-21.
[12] W. Drover, L. Busenitz, S. Matusik, D. Townsend, A. Anglin, G. Dushnitsky. A review and road map of entrepreneurial equity financing research: venture capital, corporate venture capital, angel investment, crowdfunding, and accelerators. Journal of management. 43 (2017) 1820-53.
[13] T. Constantin, A. Holman, M.A. Hojbotă. Development and validation of a motivational persistence scale. Psihologija. 45 (2011) 99-120.
[14] F. Rajati, H. Ashtarian, N. Salari, M. Ghanbari, Z. Naghibifar, S.Y. Hosseini. Quality of life predictors in physically disabled people. Journal of education and health promotion. 7 (2018).
[15] J. Lampel, B. Honig, I. Drori. Organizational ingenuity: Concept, processes and strategies. Sage Publications Sage UK: London, England2014.
[16] C. Fornell, D.F. Larcker. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research. 18 (1981) 39-50.
[17] E. Kendall, N. Buys, J. Charker, S. MacMillan. Self-employment: An under-utilised vocational rehabilitation strategy. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 25 (2006) 197-205.
[18] A. Monajemzide. Investigating the relationship between interpersonal communication skills and students' social acceptance. Khorasegan: Payam Noor University 2012.
[19] P.M. Podsakoff, S.B. MacKenzie, J.-Y. Lee, N.P. Podsakoff. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology. 88 (2003) 879.
[20] M. Ahmadpour Dariani. Entrepreneurship, definitions, theories and patterns. Tehran: Pardis. 2001.
[21] A. Gholipour, K. Raeisifar, M. Akhavananvari. Investigating the relationship between attachment styles, exploratory behavior and risk-taking. Public Management Perspectives Quarterly. 34 (2018) 135 - 52.
[22] J.B. Bailey, D.W. Thomas. Regulating away competition: The effect of regulation on entrepreneurship and employment. Journal of Regulatory Economics. 52 (2017) 237-54.
[23] E. Mollick, A. Robb. Democratizing innovation and capital access: The role of crowdfunding. California management review. 58 (2016) 72-87.
[24] T. Baker, R.E. Nelson. Creating something from nothing: Resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative science quarterly. 50 (2005) 329-66.
[25] E.L. Paluck. Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: a field experiment in Rwanda. Journal of personality and social psychology. 96 (2009) 574.
[26] R. Pagán. Self‐employment among people with disabilities: evidence for Europe. Disability & Society. 24 (2009) 217-29.
[27] S.B. MacKenzie, P.M. Podsakoff. Common method bias in marketing: Causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of retailing. 88 (2012) 542-55.
[28] K. Walker, F. Schlosser, D.L. Deephouse. Organizational ingenuity and the paradox of embedded agency: The case of the embryonic Ontario solar energy industry. Organization Studies. 35 (2014) 613-34.
[29] W.J. Baumol. Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of business venturing. 11 (1996) 3-22.
[30] J. Hemer. A snapshot on crowdfunding. Arbeitspapiere Unternehmen und Region2011.
[31] P.M. Podsakoff, S.B. MacKenzie, N.P. Podsakoff. Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual review of psychology. 63 (2012) 539-69.
[32] J.F. Hair. Multivariate data analysis. (2009).
[33] D. Miller, I. Le Breton-Miller. Underdog entrepreneurs: A model of challenge–based entrepreneurship. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA2017.
[34] G. Zarinkafshian. Investigating the relationship between negative attitude of society and exclusion of disabled people from society. in: S.S. Quarterly, (Ed.).2019. p. 56.
[35] D.M. Hart, Z.J. Acs. High-tech immigrant entrepreneurship in the United States. Economic Development Quarterly. 25 (2011) 116-29.
[36] A. Islam. Entrepreneurship and the allocation of government spending under imperfect markets. World Development. 70 (2015) 108-21.
[37] V. Braun, V. Clarke. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology. 3 (2006) 77-101.
[38] I. Light, P. Bhachu, S. Karageorgis. Migration networks and immigrant entrepreneurship. Routledge2017.
[39] E.T. Maziriri, W. Madinga, T. Lose. Entrepreneurial barriers that are confronted by entrepreneurs living with physical disabilities: A thematic analysis. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies. 9 (2017) 27-45.
[40] G. Davidson, R. Irvine, M. Corman, F. Kee, B. Kelly, G. Leavey, et al. Measuring the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families: scoping study final report. (2017).
[41] G.D. Bruton, D. Ahlstrom, K. Obloj. Entrepreneurship in emerging economies: Where are we today and where should the research go in the future. Entrepreneurship theory and practice. 32 (2008) 1-14.
[42] M. Dollinger. Entrepreneurship. Marsh Publications2008.
[43] A. Van Stel, D.J. Storey, A.R. Thurik. The effect of business regulations on nascent and young business entrepreneurship. Small business economics. 28 (2007) 171-86.
[44] M. Shaterian, A. Askarikaviri, F. Fakhri. Study of Aran and Bidgol's people attitude towards Afghan immigrants. Kashan, Kashan University 2010.
[45] C. Pardo, W. Alfonso. Applying “attribution theory” to determine the factors that lead to the failure of entrepreneurial ventures in Colombia. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. (2017).
[46] H.T. Hurt, K. Joseph, C.D. Cook. Scales for the measurement of innovativeness. Human Communication Research. 4 (1977) 58-65.
Section
Articles
Copyright
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

The copyright in the text of individual articles (including research articles, opinion articles, book reviews, conference proceedings and abstracts) is the property of their respective authors, subject to a general license granted to Mapta Publishing Group and a Creative Commons CC-BY licence granted to all others, as specified below. The compilation of all content on this site, as well as the design and look and feel of this website are the exclusive property of Mapta Publishing Group.

All contributions to Mapta Publishig Group may be copied and re-posted or re-published in accordance with the Creative Commons licence referred to below.

Articles and other user-contributed materials may be downloaded and reproduced subject to any copyright or other notices.

As an author or contributor you grant permission to others to reproduce your articles, including any graphics and third-party materials supplied by you, in accordance with the Mapta Publishing GroupTerms and Conditions and subject to any copyright notices which you include in connection with such materials. The licence granted to third parties is a Creative Common Attribution ("CC BY") licence. The current version is CC-BY, version 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), and the licence will automatically be updated as and when updated by the Creative Commons organisation.

How to Cite

Shabanpour, M. (2021). Modeling Underdog Entrepreneurs Journey in Iran: A Mixed Method Approach. Mapta Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (MJMIE), 5(2), 52–65. https://doi.org/10.33544/mjmie.v5i2.184